Рекомендации к компетентности членов экипажей судов, определенных Манильскими поправками 2010г. к МК ПДНВ 1978г. при плавании во льдах.
ADOPTION OF THE FINAL ACT AND ANY INSTRUMENTS, RESOLUTIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS RESULTING FROM THE WORK OF THE CONFERENCE
THE MANILA AMENDMENTS TO THE SEAFARERS' TRAINING, CERTIFICATION
AND WATCHKEEPING (STCW) CODE
Recommended guidance regarding provisions of the STCW Convention and its annex
Guidance regarding training of masters and officers for ships operating in polar waters**
1 It is important that masters, officers in charge of a navigational watch and officers in charge of an engineering watch on board ships operating in polar waters should have relevant experience and training, as follows:
.1 Prior to being assigned duties on board such ships:
.1.1 For masters and officers in charge of a navigational watch, the training should provide basic knowledge on at least the subjects given in paragraphs 2 to 11 hereunder; and
.1.2 For officers in charge of an engineering watch, the training should provide basic knowledge on at least the subjects given in paragraphs 3, 6, 10 and 11 hereunder.
.2 Masters and Chief Engineer Officers should have sufficient and appropriate experience in operating ships in polar waters.
Ice characteristics - ice areas
2 Interpretation of different ice-charts and awareness of limitations in meteorology and oceanography data, ice physics, formation, growth, ageing and stage of melt; ice types and concentrations; ice pressure; friction from snow-covered ice; implications of spray-icing and icing up; precautions against icing up and mitigation of consequences; ice regimes in different regions and different seasons, including the differences between the Arctic and the Antarctic; recognition of consequences of rapid change in ice and weather conditions; movement of icebergs and pack ice.
* Note there are no corresponding regulations in the Convention or sections in part A of the Code for sections B-V/a, B-V/b, B-V/c, B-V/d, B-V/e, B-V/f and B-V/g.
** Refer to IMO Assembly resolution A.1024(26) on Guidelines for ships operating in polar waters.
Ship's performance in ice and cold climate
3 Vessel characteristics; vessel types, hull designs; ice-strengthening requirements; ice-class of different classification societies - polar class and local regulations; limitations of ice-classes; winterization and preparedness of vessel; low-temperature system performance.
Voyage and passage planning for a ship in ice*
4 Development of safe routeing and passage planning to avoid ice where possible, including interpreting various forms of ice imagery and data to assist in the preparation of a strategic passage planning; entering ice from open water to avoid icebergs and dangerous ice conditions; navigation, determining when it is safe or not safe to enter areas containing ice or icebergs due to darkness, swell, fog or pressure ice.
Operating and handling a ship in ice
5 Preparations and risk assessment before approaching ice-infested waters; unassisted operation of vessels with different ice-class in different ice-types; safe speed in the presence of ice and icebergs; communications with an icebreaker and other vessels; navigation in various ice concentrations and coverage; awareness of the increase in energy of movement; use of icebergs for shelter and access through packed ice.
6 Use of different type of propulsion system and rudder, including awareness of system strength and capacity limitations; use of heeling and trim systems, engine loads and cooling problems.
Regulations and recommendations
7 Local requirements for entering different regions, including the Antarctic Treaty; international regulations and recommendations.
8 Use of and hazards associated with terrestrial navigational aids in polar waters; high-latitude compass errors; discrimination of radar targets and ice-features in ice-clutter; limitations of electronic positioning systems at high latitude; limitations in nautical charts and pilot descriptions; limitations in communication systems.
Safety precautions and emergency procedures
9 Availability of hydrographic data sufficient for safe navigation; precautions when navigating in poorly charted waters; limitations of search and rescue readiness and responsibility, including GMDSS area A4 and its SAR communication facility limitation; awareness of contingency planning; knowledge of towing procedures; value of contact with other ships and local SAR organization; recognizing dangers when crews are exposed to low temperatures; procedures and techniques for abandoning the ship and survival on the ice; crew-fatigue problems due to noise and vibrations; carriage of additional resources such as bunkers, food and extra clothing; awareness of the additional severity of consequences of incidents in polar waters.
* Refer to IMO Assembly resolution A.999(25) on Guidelines on voyage planning for passenger ships
operating in remote areas.
10 Establishing safe working procedures; awareness of the most common hull and equipment damages and how to avoid them; fire-fighting systems limitations.
11 Sensitive sea areas regarding discharge; areas where shipping is prohibited or should be avoided; Special Areas in MARPOL; oil-spill equipment limitations; plan for coping with increased volumes of garbage, bilge water, sludge, sewage, etc.; consequences of pollution in a cold climate.